Multilabel text classification is an interesting problem where multiple tags or categories may have to be associated with the given text/documents. Multilabel text classification occurs in numerous real-world scenarios, for instance, in news categorization and in bioinformatics (such as the gene classification problem, see Zafer Barutcuoglu et al. 2006). The Kaggle dataset is representative of the problem.
Several other interesting problem in text analytics exist, such as abstractive summarization, sentiment analysis, search and information retrieval, entity resolution, document categorization, document clustering, and machine translation. Deep learning has been applied to solve many of the above problems—for instance, “Effective Use of Word Order for Text Categorization with Convolutional Neural Networks” gives an early approach to applying a convolutional network to make effective use of word order in text categorization. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been effective in various tasks in text analytics, as explained here. Significant progress has been achieved in language translation by modeling machine translation using an encoder-decoder approach with the encoder formed by a neural network.
However, as shown in “Capsule Networks for Protein Structure Classification and Prediction,” certain cases require modeling the hierarchical relationship in text data and is difficult to achieve with traditional deep learning networks because linguistic knowledge may have to be incorporated in these networks to achieve high accuracy. Moreover, deep learning networks do not consider hierarchical relationships between local features as pooling operation of CNNs lose information about the hierarchical relationships.
Vijay Agneeswaran and Abhishek Kumar share an industrial-scale use case of capsule networks they have implemented for a client in the realm of text analytics for news categorization. They demonstrate the performance of capsule networks on the news categorization task, using the precision, recall and F1 metrics and benchmark the performance of recurrent capsule networks for the same task and compare the two implementations against a baseline model. They also discuss how to tune key hyperparameters of capsule networks such as batch size, number of filters and size of filters, initial learning rate, number of capsules, and dimension of capsules. Vijay and Abhishek conclude by detailing some of the key challenges they faced along the way.
Vijay Srinivas Agneeswaran is a senior director of technology at Publicis Sapient. Vijay has spent the last 12 years creating intellectual property and building products in the big data area at Oracle, Cognizant, and Impetus, including building PMML support into Spark/Storm and implementing several machine learning algorithms, such as LDA and random forests, over Spark. He also led a team that built a big data governance product for role-based, fine-grained access control inside of Hadoop YARN and built the first distributed deep learning framework on Spark. Earlier in his career, Vijay was a postdoctoral research fellow at the LSIR Labs within the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL). He’s a senior member of the IEEE and a professional member of the ACM. He holds four full US patents and has published in leading journals and conferences, including IEEE Transactions. His research interests include distributed systems, cloud, grid, peer-to-peer computing, machine learning for big data, and other emerging technologies. Vijay holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science and engineering from SVCE, Madras University, an MS (by research) from IIT Madras, and a PhD from IIT Madras.
Abhishek Kumar is a senior manager of data science in Sapient’s Bangalore office, where he looks after scaling up the data science practice by applying machine learning and deep learning techniques to domains such as retail, ecommerce, marketing, and operations. Abhishek is an experienced data science professional and technical team lead specializing in building and managing data products from conceptualization to the deployment phase and interested in solving challenging machine learning problems. Previously, he worked in the R&D center for the largest power-generation company in India on various machine learning projects involving predictive modeling, forecasting, optimization, and anomaly detection and led the center’s data science team in the development and deployment of data science-related projects in several thermal and solar power plant sites. Abhishek is a technical writer and blogger as well as a Pluralsight author and has created several data science courses. He’s also a regular speaker at various national and international conferences and universities. Abhishek holds a master’s degree in information and data science from the University of California, Berkeley.
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