R. Stuart Geiger, Brittany Fiore-Gartland, and Charlotte Cabasse-Mazel share ethnographic findings that they made observing and working with Jupyter notebooks across multiple organizations where notebooks are in heavy use. The team conducted interviews about the role of Jupyter in the work done at these companies, observed how people and organizations use notebooks in practice, and worked personally with notebooks in many different contexts. This fieldwork, focused mostly around academic uses of Jupyter, represents a broad array of Jupyter engagement across different fields, programming languages, institutions, and kinds of teams.
Stuart, Brittany, and Charlotte’s analysis draws from James Carey’s foundational theory of communication as transmission versus ritual, which is a useful way to think about the goals of Jupyter notebooks and related technologies. Communication is often understood as the transmission of information from one person to another, so good communication is achieved when the ideas inside the mind of the speaker make it into the mind of the listener. However, Carey notes that communication is also often a ritual in which people work to establish a shared context and sustain a common understanding of why we are here and what we are doing. Jupyter notebooks are certainly used to effectively communicate scientific or analytic narratives of computation. However, Jupyter also plays an important role in supporting and changing various ritual practices that take place around computational analysis.
Some of the observed rituals have a very broad adoption and predate Jupyter, such as the ritual of presenting a slide deck at a scientific conference. In this case, tools like nbpresent help Jupyter users present their work within this established ritual. Other rituals are more specific to a particular group and have been created due to the capacities of Jupyter, such as a weekly peer learning group where learners clone a GitHub repository containing a completed notebook that the presenter is projecting on a screen, with everyone walking through the notebook together. There are also rituals that have been transformed by the use of Jupyter, such as one lab’s “chalk talks,” where scientists once gave stand-up analyses on a chalk or white board but now frequently project a blank or thinly scaffolded Jupyter notebook and live code an analysis.
Rituals can be public and institutionalized or more private and individual, such as practices that people do before sharing a notebook to colleagues or the public. The ritual of cleaning up a messy notebook is one Stuart, Brittany, and Charlotte have frequently observed and discussed in interviews with Jupyter users. Depending on the particular shared context someone wants to establish, these rituals of curation can look different and serve different goals. For example, in many instances people use Jupyter with the shared goal of creating an analysis that can be cleanly reproduced end to end. The “restart and run all” test is an important private ritual in this context. Yet in other instances, like with beginner-focused workshops or courses, people strategically allow for messiness in their notebook through rituals like making then fixing errors or going down less fruitful pathways. These kinds of rituals are often tied to broader social practices that signal a culture or context that values flexibility, experimentation, or learning.
Stuart, Brittany, and Charlotte will also leave time for audience members to discuss their own rituals of working with Jupyter notebooks.
R. Stuart Geiger is an ethnographer and postdoctoral scholar at the Berkeley Institute for Data Science at UC Berkeley, where he studies the infrastructures and institutions that support the production of knowledge. He uses ethnographic, historical, qualitative, and quantitative methods in his research, which is grounded in the fields of computer-supported cooperative work, science and technology studies, and communication and new media studies. He holds a PhD from the UC Berkeley School of Information, where his research focused on the governance and operation of Wikipedia and scientific research networks. He has also studied newcomer socialization, moderation and quality control, specialization and professionalization, cooperation and conflict, the roles of support staff and technicians, and diversity and inclusion.
Brittany Fiore-Gartland is the director of data science ethnography at the eScience Institute and a research scientist in the Department of Human Centered Design and Engineering at the University of Washington, where she leads a research group that studies the sociocultural implications of data-intensive science and how data-intensive technologies are reshaping how people work and organize. Her research focuses on cross-sector and interdisciplinary data science collaborations, emerging pedagogical models for data science, and bringing a human-centered, sociotechnical, and ethical perspective to data science practice. Brittany coleads UW Data Science Studies, an interdisciplinary group of researchers studying the sociotechnical and ethical dimensions of the emerging practice of data science that is part of a collaborative and multisited working group supported through the Moore-Sloan Data Science Environments and in partnership with researchers at the Berkeley Institute for Data Science and the Center for Data Science in New York University. Whenever possible, Brittany’s work follows a model of action research, meaning her research practice aims to inform and affect positive change within the communities she studies. Often this takes the form of articulating the challenges and opportunities for communication and collaboration during times of technological change. She works with communities to bridge communication gaps and develop value-informed, reflexive, and adaptive organizational practices.
Charlotte Cabasse-Mazel is an ethnographer at the Berkeley Institute for Data Science at UC Berkeley. She is interested in the ways in which practices and methodologies of data science transform production of knowledge and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as scientific personae and trajectories within the academic institution. Charlotte holds a PhD in geography and science and technologies studies from the University of Paris-Est, where she studied at the Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés (LATTS), at Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées.
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